Automated Grading System for Breast Cancer Histopathological Images Using Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG) Algorithm


  • Mohammed Saher Biomedical Informatics College, University of Information Technology and Communication, Baghdad, Iraq.
  • Muneera Alsaedi Concordia University, Montreal, Canada.
  • Ahmed Al Ibraheemi Al Ameed University/College of Medicine, Karbala, Iraq.



Breast Cancer Grading, Automated malignancy grading, Pattern analysis, Histopathological image


Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in the world, affecting both men and women. In 2023, the American Cancer Society's reported that there will be approximately 297,800 new cases of invasive breast cancer in women and 2,850 in men, along with 55,750 cases of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) in women. Further, an estimated 43,750 deaths are expected from breast cancer, of which approximately 43,180 are among women and 570 are among men. In this paper, we propose an automated grading system for breast cancer based on tumor's histopathological images using a combination of the Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG) for feature extraction and machine learning algorithms. The proposed system has four main phases: image preprocessing and segmentation, feature extraction, classification, and integration with a website. Grayscale conversion, enhancement, noise and artifact removal methods are used during the image preprocessing stage. Then the image is segment during the segmentation phase to extract regions of interest. And then, features are extracted from the obtained region of interest using the Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG) algorithm. The next, the images are classified into three distinct breast cancer grades based on the extracted features using machine learning algorithms. Moreover, the effectiveness of the proposed system was evaluated and reported using vary evaluation methods and the results showed a remarkable accuracy of up to 97% by the SVM classifier. Finally, the machine learning model is integrated into a website to improve the detection and diagnosis of breast cancer disease and facilitate the access and use of patient data. This will make the work easier for physicians to enhance breast cancer detection and treatment.


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How to Cite

Saher, M., Alsaedi, M., & Al Ibraheemi, A. (2023). Automated Grading System for Breast Cancer Histopathological Images Using Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG) Algorithm. Applied Data Science and Analysis, 2023, 78–87.
DOI: 10.58496/ADSA/2023/006
Published: 2023-08-29